Payam Zan

Womens Message
A Special Feature on
`Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Vol. 14, No.158, May 2005
Places, Art, Literature, Index
Proprietor: Islamic propagation Office of the Qum Seminary
Chief Director: Muhammad Ja`fari Giláni
Editor-in-chief: Seyyed Ziá Murtazawi
Centra Office: P.O.Box 37185-165, Qom, Iran
Tel-Fax: (0251) 7733305


Trans: Ahmad Reza Jalili and Seyyed Abbás Huseini

Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran (A Report on Functions (2))
On the whole, womens affairs, five educational subjects, employment, housekeeping, laws and political participation were investigated in the previous editorial.
This editorial, in dealing with part of womens affairs, marriage and family, birth control, hijab (Islamic Veil), womens chastity, girls and womens various distinguishable affairs have be taken into consideration.

Women; a National Issue Not an Instrument for Occasional Use (a report about the Centre for Womens Participation in an interview with Mrs. Zahrá Shujái, a consultant in the office of the president and a member of the government department)
Faribá Ibtiháj
Today, the most effective establishment dealing with womens status, excutive and influential experiences which has an influential role in conducting the programmes and attracting credits for the women in Iran is the Centre of Womens Participation which is connected with the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The director of this centre who was appointed by the president and was once a member of the government department can now, by being present among the ministers, play an active part in the discussion about women and girls affairs. Mrs. Zahrá Shujái, the director of this centre, expounds in this interview on the historical development and the achievements made by this establishment during the last thirteen years, the future perspective, and the factors of the unstable legal condition of women in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

An Interview with the Presidents First Consultant on Womens affairs, Lady Shahlâ Habibi
Parvaneh Salâmi
The formation of the `Office for Womens Affairs headed by Lady Shahlâ habibi who acts as the Presidents consultant on womens affairs at the time of Hâshemi Rafsanjâni presidency, created new opportunities to take womens affairs into serious consideration, especially at a higher level in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Office gained promotion to a centre when Mr. Khatami was elected as president, and its head was able to take part in sessions of the cabinet council. The formation of the Office, its services and related subjects is the to pic of discussion about which Lady Shahlâ Habibi, as the first woman who took charge of the Office and who played a great role in its establishment offered her views.

We Are Halfway There; a Promising Future
In an Interview with Manijeh Nobakht Homeyrâ Heidariân
Womens Socio-cultural Council affiliated with the High Council for Cultural Revolution is one of the active institutions working on womens and family affairs whose structure and activity was previously reported in a seperate abstract. An interview with the Lady Monireh Nobakht who is a well-known figure in this area can be instructive in providing the reader with more information about the position and function of the council.

The Framework and Function of the Cultural and Social Consultive Assembly Womens Affairs
Homira Hayderianfor
Among the institutions which takes care of the general affairs of women is the Cultural and Social Consultive Assembly for Womens Affairs which is connected with the High Consultive Assembly of the Cultural Revolution. This assembly, which is composed of representatives from different cultural, educational, scientific, political, propagating, seminary organizations and institutions and other centres, makes plans and programs relating women and family affairs and present them to the High Consultive Assembly of Cultural Revolution. The present article introduces a general account of the structure and function of this assembly.

Commissions for Womens Affairs: Their Course of Establishment and Their Achievements
Maryam Aqa Sheykh Muhammad
Commissions for Womens Affairs are formal institutions affiliated with the Ministry of Interior Affairs presided over by the diplomatic social deputies of governor-generals in the provinces throughout the country and have the responsibility of making plans about womens affairs. Members of the Commissions who are representatives of the administration present their experiences about womens various social, political and educational problems as well as employment to social councils in the provinces who make final decisions on them. The Office for Womens Affairs in the Ministry of Interior Affairs resposnsibility is to conduct and supervise over the activities of commissions. This article deals with the process of forming the commissions, the activities which have been done and the social problems which women face.

The Islamic Revolution: a Fertile Ground for the Growth of Islamic Seminaries for Women
Mahtab Ridapoor
Throughout history womens progress in diferent fields has been in line with the progress made by men although this point has not been given due attention by history writers. One of the fields in which women succeeded brilliantly and deserved distinguished positions _ though their number was less than that of men - was the study of religion and fiqh (religious jurisprudence). The Islamic Revolution of Iran and the birth of an Islamic Republic in Iran paved the way for the expansion of Islamic seminaries for women and for training women to become religious scholars.
The present article reviews womens educational conditions with regard to the study of religious sciences by taking a glance at their situation before and after the birth of the Islamic Revolution. Then, an investigation based on documentary evidences and statistic information is made to show the influence of the Revolution on the expansion of Islamic seminaries for women. The discussion in this article is centred on: womens role in studying fiqh, modern age and the seminary for women, the Islamic Republic and Islamic seminaries, the main activities of Jamíat al _ Zehrá and the various deparments connected to it and the useful effects of establishing the Centre of Directorship of Islamic Seminaries for Women.

New Attempts in Looking at Womens Affairs "A Report on the Functions of Womens Studies and Researches Office"
Elham Rezae
Womens Studies and Researches Office is a centre affiliated with the Women Islamic Seminary which started its activities in 1377 AH. (solar) with the intention of explaining the systematic religious view of women and family and training researchers and experts in the field of Islamic studies. This article provides the reader with the examination of the organizational structure, strategic policies as well as the achievements resulted from the six-year activities done in this centre. An interview with the religious scholar, Zibâ`inejâd, the director of the Office, casts lights on the objectives the Office is persuing.

Women and Family in Academic Studies (A Report on a Course "Studies of Women" and "Studies of Family")
Maryam Basiri
Introducing the centers and institutions that are associated with `women and family, regardless of achievements and tendencies, is a focus of attention in this special feature. `Studies of women and `Studies of family are the two courses of study which have been run for some years by some specialists and academic authorities in several universities to which many students have succeeded to gain admission. It is useful and even necessary for those who still harboured doubts about these universities to get familiar with these courses and their objectives. The present report in itself constitutes an achievement of constant effort of twelve authorities during at least six months.

The Twenty-five year Functions of the Islamic Propagation Office
Maryam Basiri
The Islamic Propagation Office affiliated with the Islamic Seminary of Qom started its activities twenty-five years ago, with which the journal `Womens Message is affiliated. The Office has undertaken a wide range of activities in various subjects and fields and has not devoted only to womens affairs and their families, but, as it is the forerunner of the offices which have dealt with womens issues and have made lots of achievements in this field, `Womens Message seeks to cast light on and evaluate the functions of the Office in matters of women. What attaches great significance to the functions of the Office and its achievements is that the Office is originated in the Islamic Seminary of Qom and its activities revolve around current Islamic issues in the Seminary.

The Community of Women Journalists; a Glance at the Efforts and Challenges
Fatimeh Torâbparvar
The active participation in various scenes of women journalists, ranging from war fronts to serious political arenas to socially delicate situations, along with its numerous problems and peculiar sensitivities, is a symbol of womens participation in social activities whose growth in the Islamic Republic of Iran is the subject of discussion in this article.
Having given some examples of women journalists participation in the sacred defence, the article provides the reader with an all-embracing report on the statistics on women working in the press, and examines certain problems they face in this field of activity.

women, Art, and the Sacred Defence in a Glance
Faribâ Anisi
Above and beyond the human external senses and even human in tellect, art has deeply influnced on human soul, making the artistic message everlasting. Thus, the artistic temperament (skills and talents) has played and will play a significant part in fostering values and promoting culture in the sacred defence by creating religions affections in the youth during the sacred defence or afterwards by transferring the theme and the content of this sacred denfence to the delicate soul of the third generation.
Art in the sacred defence has manifested itself in womens delicate artistic temperament, especially in literature, movies, novels, paintings, and so on, with various aspects of which this article is concerned.

The Status of Women in the View of National Mass Media
Frishtah Wali Morad
The image of woman reflected by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcastin can be taken as an overall manifestation of the values adopted by the Islamic Revolution about woman whose status is outlined when the culture of society is designed.
Accordingly, the special perspective which the officials who are in charge of this national mass media have concerning the status and role of woman in producing various programmes has a particular significance in strengthening common culture. This institution of the media made brilliant success during the last twenty-five years in preserving religious and national culture and strengthening the values of the Islamic Revolution in society, which is considered among the remarkable achievements which are worth appreciation. Beside the significant achievements, there were shortcomings which can be criticized. An evaluation of these shortcomings will be of influential significance for planning a future policy. The present article, taking a glance at the programmes on women which the television shows in the form of plays, news, TV advertisements, and live performances, criticizes the types of behavior which these programmes display and the way the programme-producers perceive things.

The Image of Woman in the Eye of Women Film-Makers
Mardiyya Waziri Moqaddam
The image of woman working in the movies is dependent on the political, social and cultural changes in main centre of attractive art of cinema in the West which have influenced the culture of the eastern world and have equally prevailed in the third - world countries. The instrumental and surface view of this art about woman represented in its inattention to the true status, to the different charateristics of each sex and to national identity is considered one of the distinctive features of septime art which charactrized the identity of the movies of the pre-Revolution period in Iran.
Although the movies in the post-Revolution period was still lacking accurate understanding of womans personality and true Islamic view about women, that period witnessed a remarkable advance, and the active participation of women in the movies as well as the attention given to the actual challenges of women in society are considered among the influential factors of this advance. The present article explores the scope of this participation and how woman is viewed by women film _ makers.

Womens Picture in the View of the Movies
(a review of womens conditions in the movies of the twenty-five years following the Revolution)
Nozhat Badi
The pretty gem with its emotional significance represented in woman and the delicacy and beauty which art coneals in its depth are inseparably linked. But, the instrumental use of woman and viewing her as a means of attraction, as she is frequently shown by artistic shows, especially the movies is considered one of the serious problems from which this type of art suffers which conceals the true identity and the sacred characteristic of woman and shows the false rusty appearance of attractions instead.
The birth of the Islamic Revolution is a turning point in the distinguished exciting progress that paved the ground for women to attain perfection in the field of the movies in Iran, in spite of the various difficult experiences which women faced in their search for identity.
The present article examines the status of woman in the movies of Iran throughout three periods: the early stage of the Revolution and the-sacred-defence period, the years in the middle course of the Revolution, the construstion period and the period in which the second Khurdad changes took place. Among the topics on which the movies of post-Revolution period focused were: the mythological ontology of women, patient mothers, womens search for identity, the role of women in the sacred defence, temporary marriage, having more than one wife, girls escaping from home, the share of native women in the movies, womens crimes and women politicians.

Iranian Women Film - makers are Known for Their Decency
(an interview with Ali Rida Ridadad, the excutive director of Farabi Cinema Foundation)
Maryam Basiri
Some questions which are worth considering are the gradual development of the movies on women and family in Iran and womens active role in film - making, which is one of the large - scale achievements of the after _ Revolution period in cultural fields. The various negative effects of these movies on women and family about which those in charge of movies and cultural activities were worried led them to think of controlling and supervising these. activities. The responsibility of supervising the movies was entrusted to Farabi Movie Foundation. In an interview with the excutive director of this Foundation the different aspects of this question were investigated.

A Revolution which Paved the Way for Womens Performance in the Theatre
Azar Mohajir
One of the areas in which Iranian women participate is the theatre which is of a long-standing history. The Islamic Revolution not only did not put any restrictions on womens participation in the theatre, but also made tremendous efforts to set the stage for their safe and secure participation through improving the atmosphere and encouraging peoples reliance on its relatively safe and secure environment. The assessment of present situation of the theatre and womens performance in it is the subject on which a number of women artists touch. They are as follows: Fahimeh Râstkâr, Jâleh Olow, Maryam Mu`tarif, Fahimeh Rahimnia, Mahin Nawidi, Sepideh Nazaripu°r, Afruz Foruzand, Naghmeh Thamini, Narmin Nazmi, and Chistâ Yathribi.

Women and Music in an Interview with Dr.Iraj Na`imâi, the Director of the Iranian Music Association
Mahbubeh Palangi
Cultural corruption in the government at the time of ex-regime before the Islamic Revolution, including corruptions in fields of art, one of whose clear examples is music, was the major obstacle in its rational, approp riate and lawful application.
Naturaly, with the advent of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, the situation began to improve and the issue of women singing and playing musical instruments could not be completely left off the agenda and it continued to exist as an academic subject, among the others, at the universities.
An interview with the director of the Iranian Music Association is intended to have a look at womens art and skill in writing and performing music as well as its course of development after the Islamic Revolution.

Plastic Arts in a Glance An Interview with the Leading Artists in Ceramics, Drawings, Graphics and Calligraphy
Thorayyâ Bayât
The Islami Revolution of Iran provided favourable opportunities for womens active and constructive (effective) participation in artistic fields, including plastic arts. Plastic arts have constituted artistic achievements for our society. What has the role and status of women been in various fields of plastic arts in comparison with the ones before the Islamic Revolution? What changes have taken places in plastic arts after the Islamic Revolution and what are the prospects? These are the questions, among others, which were discussed by some of the leading artists in our country in the fields of ceramics, graphics, drawings and calligraphy. These figures are as the following: Manijeh لrmin, Firuzeh Golmuhammadi, Farideh Tathirimoqaddam, `Azra Aqiqi Bakhshâyesh and Nasrin Aqiqehchi.

Poetesses in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Firuzeh Hafezian
In the last twenty years, poetry has witnessed great developments both in the field of poetesses and womens paems as a result of which distinguished poets have emerged in this period. On the occasion of womens achievements, especially in poetry and their contributions to the development of values of the Islamic Republic of Iran, twenty _ five poetesses who have proved to be active or have gained promotion in poetry are introduced in this article and a passage of their poems are given.

War in the Epic Literature on Women; an Analytic Review of 25 Selected Stories about Iranian Sacned Defevce
Zahra Zawarian
In recect years, there been many discussions and debates on fiction that flourished after the Islamic Revolution and during the imposed war. However, epic literature on women in which "love" and "epic" intersect has recieved little attention. Thes can be referred to as a fortunate event which, according to the writer, marks the beginning of a movement in literature called "epic literature on women." This article seeks toexamive 25 selected stories among 150 valuable works whichhave appeared in magazines and newspapers at two "content" and "structure" levels.

Women in the Poetry of the Post-Revolution Period
Hayder Ali Shafii
Poetrys depiction of woman is an interesting story whose history goes back to the early history of poetry, but, the increasing tendency towards values, and the special attention to the constructive role of women in social life, preseving lawful inviolability and national identity, which the poetry of the post-Revolution period depicts make this story more interesting.
The present article deals with a number of issues on women through the poetry of the post-Revolution period, such as the role of woman in the history of Islam, woman and hijab (Islamic veil), the role of mother, woman and love, woman and protesting, womans relation with the sacred defence and womens poetic activities and contributions.

Women Novelists after the Islamic Revolution
Mitra Sadeqi
Women novelists made their first appearance in works of literature in 1330s AH. (solar), but the changes occurred in the realm of culture in Iran after the Islmic Revolution set the staye for womens briliant activities in literature so that they have produced voluminous works in recent years, many of which rank among the best-sellers and are considered the select works in book festivals. In this research work, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Islamic Revolution, the literary works of 25 women novelists who write for children and 25 women novelists who write for adults are introduced by the writer.

The Chronicle of Developments and Changes in Womens Affairs and Their Families in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Ibrâhim Amiri
The community of Iranian women has undergone substantial changes in political, social, cultural and economic areas.
Acquiring familiarity with these changes helps us to realize the problems women face in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The extent to which the national press take changes in womens affairs into consideration indicates that the community of women has witnessed major and minor events over the years. The course of events and what follows from the changes and developments in womens affairs over the last twenty-five years as depicted in the Iranian national press and some domestic news agencies make us familiar with this course of development.

Womens Publications in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Muhammadkazim Taqawi
Womens publications in the Islamic Republic of Iran are the manifestations of concerns for the issue of women and family and the result of womens socio-political participation, which marks Iranian womens potentialities in the area of creating culture.
To gain familiarity with womens active participation in this field, periodicals including 22 quarterlies, 42 monthly journals, 5 bimonthly journals, 3 weeklg journals and a newspaper which have appeared after the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran are introduced in brief. It should be noted, of course, that these are not the total number of publications which have appeared over the last twenty-five years, but all the ones for which it was possible for the writer to provide the reader with a brief account.

An Index of Womens Organizations A list of Womens Groups, Parties, Associations and Centres in the Provinces of Iran
One of the fields of womens effective social participation is reflected through the organizations which can have different forms and levels. In spite of the different factors which have deterrent effect on womens social activities in the different forms of common establishments, women have been remarkably successful in this regard. They at least, proved that they are able to participate in cooperative activities and at the some time remain committed to social and religious values. One of the central issues in the study of womens conditions in the Islamic Republic of Iran is the anlytical discussion of this category of organizations that concern womens affairs. The present essay introduces a list of womens state and non - state organizations which, with the exception of a few examples, came to existence in the years that followed the Islamic Revolution of Iran particularly during the war - time and took the form of organized social activities in the recent years. Three hundred and fifty organizations in the from of groups, societies, associations, committees, essemblies and centres are included in the list, three hundred of which are non state organizations and fifty are state organizations.

Ten Years And One Hundred Subjects
Ibráhim Amiri
During the last twenty-five years, the issue of women and family has been the focus of attention in the national press about which some discussions have been held and many articles and reports have been written. A large number of these subjects have been devoted to the womens affairs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The wide range of topics requires one to make selections. The period which was thought to be appropriate for offering the index was the last decade up to the end of the year 1382. This index can serve both as a good source for the researchers and as an indication of the general orientation of the press as well as the mark of the position the Islamic society has taken towards womens affairs and what they need in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
In this article an attempt has been made to offer the list of one hundred subjects which are of remarkable significance.

`Womens message and Womens Affairs in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Mahdi Purhusein
Since the journal `Womens Messagehas given special attention to womens affairs and families in the Islamic Republic of Iran and has focused on various issues in different areas associated with the Islamic system, an index of these kinds of issues has been given in a separate list.

The Scholarly Biography of the Writers of the Special Feature on Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Maryam káwianpur
The special feature on women in the Islamic Republic of Iran represents the great efforts and achievements of over one hundred authors and their colleagues in various sections. In addition to offering thanks to our colleagues in various sections and departments, this index provides the reader with a brief scholarly biography of eighty writers, experts, authorities and news agents who contribute to the compilation of materials for this special feature, making some references to their level of education, scientific works and activities.